### temperature

(measure of heat in matter)

Temperature is the measure of hotness or coldness of something, which corresponds to the kinetic energy of the random motion of its constituent particles. In daily life, temperature is fairly clear, but a cited temperature may need qualification for some extreme conditions, regarding how it is determined, or when describing something where temperature is varying in time or space. Some means by which temperature is measured:

• Excitation temperature is based upon the degree of excitation of the particles (atoms) and is defined by using the Boltzmann constant and Boltzmann equation that describes the relation of temperature to states of excitation, e.g., electrons above their ground state.
• Ionization temperature is similar for the degree of ionization, using the Saha equation.
• Effective temperature is the temperature of a black body that would produce the same total electromagnetic radiation as a star or other object is producing.
• Color temperature (in astronomy) is the temperature of a black body that would match a range of a star's (or other object's) spectrum. More specifically, the term may be used for a temperature value based on photometry.
• Kinetic temperature reflects the kinetic energy of a material's molecules, i.e., regarding the speed of the molecules but not their molecular rotation and vibration. It is defined as 2/3 the Boltzmann constant times the mean kinetic energy of the molecules.

Stellar temperature determination is accomplished using these values and others.

(physics,measure)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature

Referenced by:
abiotic oxygen
absorption
absorption line
asymptotic giant branch (AGB)
angular power spectrum
anisotropy
antenna temperature
atmosphere
atmospheric escape
atmospheric temperature profile
Balmer jump
baroclinicity
Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN)
beta (β)
binding energy
black body (BB)
bolometer
Boltzmann constant (k)
Boltzmann equation
Bose-Einstein statistics
carbonate-silicate cycle
carbonate system
CCAT-prime (CCAT-p)
chemical equilibrium (CE)
Cepheid variable
chemodynamics
clathrate
CMB polarization
CNO cycle
carbon monoxide (CO)
cold gas
cold spot
comet
cooling function
cryovolcano
deuterium burning
Earth
earthshine
eccentricity (e)
eclipse mapping
effective temperature (Teff)
reduction potential (Eh)
electron capture
electron degeneracy
emissivity
entropy (S)
equation of state (EoS)
equilibrium condensation model
equilibrium temperature (Teq)
ethylene (C2H4)
exosphere
55 Cancri e (55 Cnc e)
51 Eridani b
fractionation
fusion
galaxy formation
Gamow peak
gravitational collapse
greenhouse effect
habitability
horizontal branch (HB)
acetylene (C2H2)
helium (He)
neutral atomic hydrogen (HI)
HII region (HII)
HR 8799
H-R diagram (HRD)
humidity
hydrodynamic escape
hydrology
ice giant
ionization correction factor (ICF)
infrared (IR)
insolation
instability strip
integration time
Io
interstellar medium (ISM)
isothermal core
Jeans escape
Jeans length
kinetic energy (KE)
Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism
Kramers opacity law
potassium/thorium ratio (K/Th ratio)
line shape function
lithium (Li)
local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)
magma ocean
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution
M-type star (M)
mean free path
meridional flow
mixing length theory
molecular cloud
noise temperature
nuclear energy generation rate (ε)
Origins Space Telescope (OST)
partition function (Z)
partial differential equation (PDE)
pointing error (PE)
phase transition
photosphere
Planck function
planet formation
planet type
plasma
power law
proton-proton chain
protoplanetary nebula (PPN)
protoplanetary disk (PPD)
quantum tunneling
refractory material
retrieval
Reynolds number (Re)
Saha equation
scale height (H)
Schönberg-Chandrasekhar limit
spectral energy distribution (SED)
shock wave
siderophile
sigma (σ)
silicon (Si)
spectral line energy distribution (SLED)
superluminous supernova (SLSN)
snow line
solar wind
specific heat
spectroscopy
star formation (SF)
state of excitation
state of ionization
Stefan-Boltzmann constant (σ)
stellar core
stellar model atmosphere
stellar parameter determination
stellar structure
stellar temperature determination
Strömgren sphere
supercooling
supergiant
superionic ice
surface temperature
Sachs-Wolfe effect (SWE)
symmetry breaking
Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZ effect)
transition edge sensor (TES)
thermal noise
thermal wind
thermodynamic equilibrium (TE)
tidal locking
Tillotson equation
Titan
ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG)
Vega
virial theorem
volatile material
water activity (aw)
water vapor planet
weathering
wavefront error (WFE)
white dwarf
Wien's displacement law
WISE 0855-0714
zonal flow

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