(state of matter where atoms joined into molecules and are ionized)
Plasma is a state of matter in addition
to solid, liquid, and gas. Plasma is gas-like
but the atoms are generally free of molecular bonds
and are ionized. As a whole, a body of plasma is neutral,
but it includes positive and negative particles,
e.g., positive ions and electrons.
The threshold distinguishing plasma from gas
(i.e., "how much of the material needs to be ionized?")
has no universally-used precise definition,
but reflects the general idea is that a gas is considered plasma
if it shows the distinct qualities of plasma,
which include electrical conductivity and
the generation of a magnetic field.
The plasma state is generally maintained by high temperature.
Much (perhaps most) of the matter in the universe is in
the plasma state.
Stars such as the Sun are sufficiently hot
as to ionize much of their matter,
much of the interstellar medium is ionized
and the intergalactic medium through galaxy clusters is
generally highly ionized.
Though plasma is rare on Earth, the vast majority of the
universe's baryonic matter is plasma.
Plasma is used in technology such as neon
signs and plasma displays.
Referenced by pages:
active galactic nucleus (AGN)
baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO)
Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)
coronal mass ejection (CME)
Deep Space 1 (DS1)
electron volt (eV)
galaxy cluster (CL)
Herbig-Haro object (HH)
International Cometary Explorer (ICE)
intracluster medium (ICM)
intergalactic medium (IGM)
interplanetary medium (IPM)
Langmuir probe (LP)
magnetic energy spectrum
Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)
partial ionization zone
Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO)
quark-gluon plasma (QGP)
radiative transfer (RT)
Reynolds number (Re)
Rosseland mean opacity
radiative transfer code (RT code)
equation of radiative transfer (RTE)
Solar Orbiter (SolO)
source function (S)
standard model of a flare
stellar model atmosphere
Sun surface features
surface of last scattering
Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZ effect)