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Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

(four spacecraft making Earth magnetosphere measurements)

The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) is a NASA fleet of four identical spacecraft orbiting Earth, measuring Earth's magnetosphere from different locations. They were launched in 2015 aiming for (at minimum) two years of service, and are still operational as of 1/2020. They are part of an effort to understand the dynamics of Earth's magnetic field, which constantly responds to variations in solar wind, including relatively extreme variations due to solar flares and the like. (The latter affect Earth technology, such as communication by radio, and have the potential to damage equipment.) The mission brings current-technology sensors to such investigation, aiming to increase our understanding. Among its goals is closer recording of magnetic reconnection within Earth's magnetic field. Instruments include:

Further reading: