(SLSN, hypernova, superluminous SN)
(stellar explosion larger than a supernova)
A superluminous supernova (SLSN or superluminous SN or hypernova)
is a stellar explosion more energetic than a normal supernova,
i.e., they can be classified as very large supernovae.
Most are Type Ic or Type IIn supernovae, termed
Type I SLSN (or SLSN-I), Type II SLSN (or SLSN-II),
They are theorized to be core collapse supernovae,
but some don't fit that pattern.
They are also thought to be the origin of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs).
A third type called SLSN-R (for "radioactive") apparently
with electromagnetic radiation produced by a radioactive nickel isotope.
Among theories explaining their mechanisms:
- collapsar - core collapse of a rapidly rotating star of suitable mass. (the term hypernova sometimes is meant specifically for this type.)
- circumstellar material (CSM) - brightness from the collision between expelled material from the exploding star and material around it.
- pair instability - (pair-instability supernova, PISN) if the internal kinetic energy is sufficiently high (i.e., temperature), pair production may be the result (creation of a particle and its anti-particle by an energetic photon's near-miss with an atom).
- magnetar - can have additional energy for release.
(stars,event type,transient type)
fast radio burst (FRB)
gamma-ray burst (GRB)