Nucleosynthesis is the creation of atomic nuclei, i.e., the creation of elements. Types include:
Big Bang nucleosynthesis - formation of hydrogen and helium in the Big Bang.
Stellar nucleosynthesis - proton-proton chain, triple alpha process, CNO cycle, s-process, r-process (types of neutron capture), rp-process, photodisintegration, carbon burning (if 6×108 K, producing oxygen neon, sodium, and magnesium), and oxygen burning (if 109 K, producing magnesium, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur).
Supernova nucleosynthesis - processes within supernovae such as the r-process or rp-process.
Cosmic ray spallation - reduction of nuclei through impact with cosmic rays.