The red clump (RC) is a grouping of stars (RC stars, red clump stars, or clump giants) which are in the same evolutionary phase as horizontal branch, but are clumped on the H-R diagram rather than spread over a range of surface temperatures. Typical is on the order of 5000K and between 10 and 100 solar radii. This is roughly at the cool end of the HB line, and shows as a bump on the red-giant branch on the diagram.
Metallicity appears to be the factor that causes stars to be spread over various temperatures (HB) versus at about the same temperature (RC), high metallicity leading to the latter.
Red clump stars, like HB stars, have passed through the RGB (for which they needed at least half a MSun as main sequence stars) and have begun helium fusion (triple alpha process) in the core, with a surrounding shell of hydrogen fusion. After this stage, a core of carbon (product of the triple-alpha fusion) has accumulated to the point that the helium fusion is in a surrounding shell, and they enter the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage.