Astrophysics (Index)About

interferometer

(device detecting EMR properties using interference between waves)

An interferometer is a device which combines electromagnetic waves in such manner that their interference can be measured to reveal properties of waves. Astronomy often uses the term for radio interferometers that consists of two or more individual radio telescopes, each of which translates received radio waves into electronic signal oscillations, which, in turn, are combined, producing analogous interference. Through analysis of the interference patterns, the direction of the source of a signal can be determined with very high precision (down to microarcseconds), yielding a very precise location in the celestial sphere, and by observing adjacent locations, yielding detail. A sophisticated type, typically using a number of radio telescopes, carries out what is termed aperture synthesis, producing an image of the radio source. This is now carried out at the short-wavelength end of radio (around where microwave radio meets infrared, about a millimeter wavelength), producing probably the most detailed images of astronomical objects.

Astronomy also has optical interferometers, doing the analogous processing at visible light wavelengths, but the corresponding frequency is too high for the electronic processing used to measure the interference of radio waves and the interference must be carried out within optics, requiring extremely precise physical positioning of elements of the interferometer necessary to deal with the wavelengths as short as the typical width of a molecule. Such interferometers are useful but the challenges of making them work has prevented more wide-spread use.

A type of interferometer, the Michelson interferometer is used within some optical astronomical instruments and also is the heart of gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO.

Many spectroscopes use wave interference produced by a grating, thus are technically interferometers but invariably go by the name spectroscope, indicating the instrument's function.


(measurement,EMR,physics,optics,interferometry)
Further reading:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferometer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomical_interferometer
https://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/R/Radio+Interferometer

Referenced by pages:
Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS)
Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)
aperture masking interferometry (AMI)
angular resolution
aperture
aperture synthesis
back end instrument
baseline
BIMA telescope
Large Altazimuth Telescope (BTA-6)
Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA)
CASA
Cosmic Anisotropy Telescope (CAT)
Cosmic Background Imager (CBI)
CONCERTO
cosmic distance ladder
Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO)
Darwin
DASI
Dominion Observatory 10.03 MHz Source Catalog (DB)
Lowell Discovery Telescope (LDT)
Earth rotation synthesis
Einstein Telescope
European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (ESO VLT)
Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI)
front end instrument
Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT)
gravitational wave spectrum
imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy (IFTS)
interference
interferometry
Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique (IRAM)
JUICE
Long Baseline Array (LBA)
Large Binocular Telescope (LBT)
LIGO
LISA
MERLIN
Michelson interferometer
Badgerys Creek Interferometer 101MHz Survey (Mills)
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ)
Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA)
Northern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA)
optical interferometer
PAPER
parallax
Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI)
point source sensitivity
Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI)
QUBIC
scintillometry
Square Kilometre Array (SKA)
Submillimeter Array (SMA)
Spektr-R
Third Cambridge Catalogue of Radio Sources (3C)
TIMED
Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF)
TripleSpec (TSpec)
Texas Survey of Radio Sources at 365 MHz (TXS)
Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)
u-v plane
visibility
Very Large Array (VLA)
Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)
Voyager
Very Small Array (VSA)
Yuan-Tseh Lee Array (YTLA)

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